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    Draft version of chapter published in the book Cycling Futures (available for free download from University of Adelaide Press). This chapter examines the mechanisms by which cyclists, bicycles, cycle practices and spaces are gendered... more
    Draft version of chapter published in the book Cycling Futures (available for free download from University of Adelaide Press).

    This chapter examines the mechanisms by which cyclists, bicycles, cycle practices and spaces are gendered masculine and feminine.
    """Carol Bacchi, University of Adelaide Jennifer Bonham, University of Adelaide ABSTRACT: This paper has its genesis in concerns about the return to “the real” in social and political theory and analysis. This trend is linked to a... more
    """Carol Bacchi, University of Adelaide
    Jennifer Bonham, University of Adelaide

    ABSTRACT: This paper has its genesis in concerns about the return to “the real” in social and political theory and analysis. This trend is linked to a reaction against the “linguistic turn”, on the grounds that an exclusive focus on language undercuts political analysis by refusing to engage with “material reality”. Foucault and “discourse” are common targets of this critique.
    Against this interpretation, the authors direct attention to the analytic and political usefulness of Foucault’s concept of “discursive practices”, which, it argues, has been much misunderstood. Discursive practices, as developed by Foucault, refers to the practices (or operations) of discourses, meaning knowledge formations, not to linguistic practices or language use. The focus is on how knowledge is produced through plural and contingent practices across different sites. Such an approach bridges a symbolic-material distinction and signals the always political nature of “the real”.

    Keywords: Foucault, practices, knowledge, politics, materiality, ontology
    """
    "This research draws on feminist and post-structuralist theory to question the way urban travel has been reflected upon by urban professionals and the effects of this mode of reflection. Rather than focus upon automobile/non-automobile... more
    "This research draws on feminist and post-structuralist theory to question the way urban travel has been reflected upon by urban professionals and the effects of this mode of reflection. Rather than focus upon automobile/non-automobile travel, this study locates cycling, walking, roller-blading, riding in a wheelchair, taking the tram, bus, train or car within a broader examination of urban travel practices and being in urban space. The study uses the City of Adelaide, South Australia, as a site through which to examine the way bodies, spaces and the conduct of travel have been objectified and subsequently intervened upon by urban experts.


    *** If I was writing this dissertation today, I would not focus on language but would emphasize the materiality of discursive practices (see Bacchi and Bonham forthcoming in Foucault Studies).  "
    Travel blending, as a form of travel demand management, has in recent times been celebrated by transport planners as a means of shaping travel behaviour without regulation. Accordingly, travel blending is said to overcome the problems of... more
    Travel blending, as a form of travel demand management, has in recent times been celebrated by transport planners as a means of shaping travel behaviour without regulation. Accordingly, travel blending is said to overcome the problems of the state bureaucracy imposing its will upon the individual’s travel
    choices. In this paper we introduce a Foucauldian analysis to the field of transport in order to examine the assertions made by proponents of travel blending that they are not exercising power in the course of shaping travel behaviour. In particular, we use recent elaborations of Foucault’s work on governmentality to
    explore the ways in which the sites, subjects and objects of travel are discursively constituted within travel blending thereby enabling new ways of intervening upon the travelling subject. We suggest that a governmentality approach not only provides a fertile means of investigating transport but also reveals travel blending as a regulatory practice serving to structure the individual’s field of action.
    Before Reading this paper - I strongly recommend reading the earlier, foundational paper 'Transport: Disciplining the Body that Travels' or chapters four and five of 'The Conduct of Travel'. The relationship between the cyclist and... more
    Before Reading this paper - I strongly recommend reading the earlier, foundational paper 'Transport: Disciplining the Body that Travels' or chapters four and five of 'The Conduct of Travel'.


    The relationship between the cyclist and the use of roadways and other spaces allocated for travel has a contested history. Pro-Cycling advocates have argued from a number of positions for the rights of cyclists to use road space and changes in the location of responsibility for road safety. This paper examines how the widespread introduction of segregated cycle facilities in recent years, whilst having undoubted beneficial effects can also be seen to raise significant problems for cycling in the context of broader travel behaviours. Bonham’s (2006) exploration of the manner in which travel systems and patterns act as disciplinary regimes can be extended to further develop an understanding of the impact of segregated cycle facilities. Drawing on the insights of Michel Foucault, we have examined texts on cycleways, historical and contemporary produced in the United Kingdom and Australia, for the way in which cyclists are constituted and positioned. The findings are complex. Overall recent texts produced within the health sciences begin to normalise cycling while those produced within the field of transport position cyclists as disruptive or deviant travellers – albeit in different ways and with different outcomes depending on the broader context. In each case, the cycleway becomes a special space which enables and constrains cycling while cycle practices are constituted as slow and disorderly, leisurely, often social and always requiring a ‘quiet’ (both in terms of traffic and noise) context. We conclude that the cycleway, by removing cyclists from road space, ultimately operates to maintain rather than challenge existing travel norms. We argue the consequences of this segregation may be profoundly at odds with the potential of cycling as a core component of sustainable mobility.
    Research Interests:
    Environmental analysis consistently shows transport as being amongst the top three contributors to a university's ecological footprint. This paper reports on a study undertaken at the Mawson Lakes Campus of the University of South... more
    Environmental analysis consistently shows transport as being amongst the top three contributors to a university's ecological footprint. This paper reports on a study undertaken at the Mawson Lakes Campus of the University of South Australia into cycling as a sustainable transport ...
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    Abstract Purpose: The research reported in this chapter focuses on understanding the experiences of women who had decided to return to cycling in adulthood. It was anticipated these experiences could assist other women contemplating... more
    Abstract

    Purpose: The research reported in this chapter focuses on understanding the experiences of women who had decided to return to cycling in adulthood. It was anticipated these experiences could assist other women contemplating taking up cycling as well as cycling lobbyists, policy makers and planners.
    Methodology: The research targeted women returning to cycling in the city of Adelaide, South Australia. It was conducted using qualitative research methods including in-depth interviews, helmet mounted video cameras and diary entries. Forty nine women participated in the study ranging in age from early twenties to mid-seventies.
    Findings: Respondents learned to cycle between the ages of 5 and 12 and most stopped in the early years of secondary school. Almost half the respondents had returned to cycling several times through the life course while another significant group had cycled occasionally up to the time of the interview. Women returned to cycling through a combination of circumstances but women in their early 20s emphasized the importance of social relationships while women in their late 30s (and older) stressed concerns about health and fitness. Becoming mothers or grandmothers was given as a reason for both taking up and giving up cycling. Although there was no pattern in the specific trigger that shifted women from ‘thinking about cycling to getting on a bike’, knowing someone who cycled – partner, family member, work colleague or acquaintance – featured in most women’s experiences.
    Research implications: The findings suggest further research into mobility through the life course will be productive.
    The paper 'Women Cycling through the lifecourse' provides an alternative analysis of the material discussed in this article. Growing interest in the bicycle as a sustainable form of transport has helped to foreground questions of... more
    The paper 'Women Cycling through the lifecourse' provides an alternative analysis of the material discussed in this article.

    Growing interest in the bicycle as a sustainable form of transport has helped to foreground questions of gender and mobility. In English speaking countries such as Australia, women’s lower rates of cycling have been well documented. Barriers to cycling identified by both men and women are likely to impact particularly heavily upon women given their on-going, significant domestic and carer responsibilities. However, intra-urban differences in rates of women cycling suggest an inter-play between spatial context and lifecycle stage that influences women’s participation in cycling. This paper reports on a qualitative study into Australian women’s experiences of cycling through the life course and focuses on the circumstances in which they take up or give up cycling and the spatial contexts in which this occurs. Forty nine women participated in the study. The study found that all respondents learned to cycle between the ages of 5 and 12 and most stopped in the early years of secondary school. Almost two thirds of the respondents had returned to cycling several times through the life course. Women took up or gave up cycling through a conjunction of circumstances but women in their early 20s emphasised the importance of social relationships in taking up cycling and women in their late 30s (and older) focused on health and fitness. Becoming mothers or grandmothers was given as a reason for starting, but also for stopping cycling. Moving house, changing jobs or changes in personal relationships also led to changes in cycling. As a small scale study, the findings of the research are limited but it does suggest productive new ways of thinking about and researching everyday mobility. Rather than assuming a linear view of everyday mobility – i.e. that people tend to walk/cycle as children then catch public transport/drive as adults – this study suggests that women are quite open to incorporating bicycling for transport (mixed with other purposes) into their lives at different times according to their circumstances.
    Comparisons of cycling have often been made between different cities and different countries but very little work has examined variations in cycling across metropolitan areas. The reinvigorated interest in cycling for urban transport,... more
    Comparisons of cycling have often been made between different cities and different countries but very little work has examined variations in cycling across metropolitan areas. The reinvigorated interest in cycling for urban transport, from policy makers and the public, means there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of cycling within Australian cities. To this end, the current paper explores intra-urban differences in cycling across
    the metropolitan areas of Adelaide and Melbourne. The research reported on in this paper is the first part of a much larger study into the factors which influence cycling, how these factors interact with each other and whether their degree of importance
    varies in different localities. Existing research shows there are five headline variables which impact on who cycles and how often: urban context; cycling context; local government policies and
    programs; culture of travel; and socio-economic and demographic characteristics.

    The current research focuses on socio-economic and demographic characteristics and it involved mapping the journey-to-work by bicycle using Statistical Local Areas then testing the relationship between socio-economic and demographic variables
    and levels of cycling. The results show a higher concentration of cycling in the central city and inner suburbs but this pattern is not straightforward especially when disaggregated by gender. The
    spatial differences in cycling frequently reported at an international and inter-city scale are also evident at an intra-urban scale. Further, differences found across Adelaide and Melbourne are only partially accounted for by socio-economic and demographic variables leaving considerable room for contextual,
    cultural and local area policies to explain the difference.
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